Mar 30, 2018
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Storage Devices Definition – Types Of It – HDD – SSD – SSHD

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Primary Storage Devices of PC, How Those Work, Best Storage Device

Storage devices are like any computer hardware which can hold information. In order to access in the future, computers need to store data. It can holds and store data temporarily and permanently, and can be internal or external to a PC, server or similar computing devices. Important manufacturers present on the market are: Western Digital, Samsung, Intel, Seagate, Toshiba.
Introduction
A data storage device is a device which can record or hold information. A storage device may hold information, process information or both. When a device can only hold information, this is a recording medium. When a device can process information, may either acces a separate portable recording medium or a permanent component in order to store and retrieve data.

For our computers are two types of storage devices: primary storage devices (RAM) and secondary storage devices (HDD). Secondary devices can be removable, internal and external. In next lines we will discuss all types of secondary storage devices.

Secondary Storage Devices
There are three main types of secondary storage devices: magnetic storage, optical storage, flash memory storage.

Magnetic storage device
This type is the most common storage used and present in our computers and is the technology that hard drives use.

Floppy Disk Drive, called FDD or FD is a device that can store data on floppy diskettes. First disk drive was made in 1971. First diskettes was capable to store between 360 KB and 1.2 MB and later between 360 KB and 1.44 MB. The amount of data was dependent on whether the disk was single or double sided and whether the disk was regular or high density. Because this type of storage device can store a little amount of data, computers no longer come with it. This technology was replaced by CD-R, DVD-R and Flash Drives.
storage devices – Floppy Disk
Floppy diskette

Hard Disk Drive, also know as HDD, is primary storage device of a PC. A big part and important files of your software used by you are stored on hard disk. Operating system is on hard disk, almost all programs is on hard disk and probably the last document which you created it, is stored too on hard disk. A computer without a hard disk don’t represent a big utility, considering that almost all software is made to function in presence of a hard disk.
storage devices – HDD
Hard Disk Drive

HDD Anatomy:
Platters covered with a magnetize material. Those platters are rotated by a spindle which can make posible thousands of rotation per minute (RPM). In present, a normal hard disk begins its RPM from 7.200 to 15.000.
Acuator arm which contains the head. Just in case a hard disk has more than one platter, which of them have its head for read/write. The activity of read/write produce a little specific noise because of magnetic phenomena used to store or access the data. During time, hard disks become more and more silent and noise made by them being almost not interceptable.
Acuator which can move the head everywhere on the surface of the platter.
Controller which, how it named, controls the processes of read and write and transfers from/to computer. Part of the electronic circuit is of course the ultra fast cache memory.
Case in which the mechanic and some of electronic components are encapsulated. Its role is to protect the platters of contact with anything and to disipate the heat produced by the platters when are rotating.
storage devices – HDD Anatomy
HDD Components

Types of HDD: 3.5, 2.5 or 1.8 inch. Looking at the diameter of the platters, most common hard disks are 3.5 and 2.5 inch. 3.5 inch hard disks are most used for PC and are mounted in a computer case. A PC is not limited at only one hard disk, being able to keep mounted four of them and the number could be increased with special extension interface. 2.5 hard disks are usually mounted on portable technology and are used by another electronic equipment such DVD Recorder, gaming consoles, video camera, MP3 players, etc. This type of hard disk requires a little 5V causing an economic power consumption looking at 3.5 inch model which require 12V to function. If 2.5 inch model requires a low voltages and power consumption is lower as well, the 3.5 inch model provides a higher transfer rate. 1.8 inch hard disks are commonly used by the popular iPod produced by the Apple company. This type of hard disk is important to be used because in portable technology every millimeter is crucial for the final form factor.
storage devices – Types of HDD
Types of HDD

Internal hard disk is meant to function in interior of the computer case. We can take the internal hard disk out from the case and put it into another case but is not smart and good solution because, you know, those devices are sensible at shocks. To transfer a big amount of data and for portability exist external hard disks. It is encapsulated in a tiny metal box a normal hard disk of 3.5 or 2.5 inch. External 3.5 inch HDD require a separate power source while 2.5 inch one is enough the 5 V and 0.5 A delivered by the USB interface. The majority of the external HDD are connected through USB interface, but there are more advanced solution like FireWire, eSATA (external SATA) or the ethernet interface to connect it to a network (LAN).
storage devices – HDD Extern
HDD Extern

Optical storage device
Lasers and lights are used to read and write data from another common storage device. Referred as optical media, optical storage, Optical disk drive (ODD). Blu-ray, CDs and DVDs are the most common types of optical media. PC can read and write CDs and DVDs through a CD Writer or DVD Writer drive, and of course the Blu-ray is read with Blu-ray drive.

As a capacity of storing data, CDs can store up to 700 megabytes and DVDs up to 8.4 gigabytes. Blu-ray disks rule all optical disks on capacity and can store upto 50 GB of data. Of course this an advantage over the magnetic media such floppy diskette which can store only 1.44 MB. The durability is another advantage over the floppy diskette and it can last up to 7 times longer.

storage devices – Optical media
Optical Media

Flash memory devices
Looking at the magnetic devices, developers saw there are some disadvantages like sensibility at shocks, and low speeds of data transfer rate. So they starting to make and innovate new solutions based on flash memory. We will discus about SSD, memory stick and memory card.

SSD (Solid State Drive) when was for the first time revealed on the market, this type of storage solution has the price so high and not so many users can afford it. For a while, you can see the price of a 120 GB SSD lower than 50$. At this price, represent a very good investment and the effect of the improvements in users’s experience will be like no other. Maybe a new graphics card will perform better in your games. A new processor will make your computer to execute faster all tasks and more RAM to run more applications, but with a SSD you can do all tasks better and don’t need to wait minutes, everyday 😀
storage devices – ssd
SSDs

In the present, a SSD can reach read speeds that are close to 10 GB/s. SSDs are capable for such performance because them function on completely different technology to HDD. Most important difference is the way how the data is stored. Instead of magnetize platters from HDD, which its rotation speed affect accessing speed and which require a head for reading and manage the data, a SSD don’t have mechanical components. The data is stored in non-volatile memory module, which may be of several types, depending on the technology used and the company that produces the memory. Data stored on SSD can be accessed very fast, no matter where them are.
storage devices – SSD PCB
SSD PCB

For any portion of memory to be written, even it is a single bit, firstly an entire block of memory need to be cleared through an erasing process. But it is not perfect, the resistance factor of the memory decreasing until it no more can be used. If the memory is only read, there are no problems, reading will not affect in no way a SSD, being the part where this devices excel. So you often will see SSDs with reading speeds faster than 500 MB/s, but with the writing speeds of only 250 MB/s. Process of writing is much slower, and how is done, it depends on type of memory used and also controller.
storage devices – SSD Components
SSD Components

The controller of a SSD dictates most of the performance and durability on the device. Maybe you heard names like Sandforce or Phison. Those names refer at type of controller used, component that manage all data. A controller determines how the information is written on SSD, often in a way to use every cell of memory equally and do not feel the presence of usability too soon. Controller also manage data compression and addressing errors. If you think that a SSD can be a PC, then controller might be the CPU of SSD. Like a PC, a SSD have some RAM, correctly said, have cache. It comes in the form of a quantity of volatile memory, often of DDR3 type, used to store information now in use or which are ready to be compressed. How is used this cache depends on the controller, some of them like Sandforce, don’t require the volatile memory.
The last thing to consider to a SSDs is how are connected to PC. As a standard, all SSDs were SATA type, its speed being limited to 6 GB/s. But lately appear SSDs able to connect to PCI-Express directly mounted on expansion card or through M.2 slot.
Memory stick was first introduced by Sony in 1998 and was design for the Sony digital cameras and other Sony products. Sony develop some different types of memory stick including: memory stick, memory stick duo, memory stick micro, memory stick PRO-HG, memory stick XC. The capacity of a memory stick can vary from 4 MB to 256 GB and a theoretically maximum capacity of 2 TB. Nowadays almost all people know about memory stick looking like from the right image. That’s an USB flash based memory stick which for sure everyone see one of them.
storage devices – Memory Stick
Memory Stick

Memory card named also flash memory card is a type of storage that is often used to store photos, videos or other data. Memory card is commonly used by the following devices: digital cameras, handheld computers, MP3 players, game consoles, PDAs, smartphones and also printers. The pictures from the right is a MicroSD memory card being one of the many type of it. There are plenty types of memory card varying in size, compatibility and capacity: CompactFlash (FC), MircoSD, MMC, SD Card, SDHC Card, SmartMedia Card, Sony Memory Stick and xD-Picture Card.
storage devices – Memory Card
Memory Card – MicroSD

Hybrid storage devices
This storage was introduced to combine the capacity of the HDD and the performance of the SSD. Let’s discuss about this type of storage device.

SSHD (Solid State Hybrid Drive) is a combination between a HDD, with platters, and a SSD. If you are not hearing untill now, on the market it is present and this type of storage device. Samsung and Seagate introduced in 2007 the first hybrid drives with the Samsung SpinPoint MH80 and Seagate Momentus PSD. Each model was 2.5 inch drives, featuring 128 MB or 256 MB NAND flash memory.
So what is a SSHD? Is normal hard drive with a cache memory (NAND), usually of 8 GB. All information that you are using are saved in this memory, and if you access them repeatedly, information is load much faster. Therefore, frequently used files will remain saved in cache to open them much faster, using an algorithm very well defined, and those files rarely used, will remain stored in HDD, as an archive.

Primary Storage Devices of PC, How Those Work, Best
Storage Device
Storage devices are like any computer hardware which can hold information. In order to access in the future, computers need to store data. It can holds and store data temporarily and permanently, and can be internal or external to a PC, server or similar computing devices. Important manufacturers present on the market are: Western Digital, Samsung, Intel, Seagate, Toshiba.

Introduction
A data storage device is a device which can record or hold information. A storage device may hold information, process information or both. When a device can only hold information, this is a recording medium. When a device can process information, may either acces a separate portable recording medium or a permanent component in order to store and retrieve data.

For our computers are two types of storage devices: primary storage devices (RAM) and secondary storage devices (HDD). Secondary devices can be removable, internal and external. In next lines we will discuss all types of secondary storage devices.

Secondary Storage Devices
There are three main types of secondary storage devices: magnetic storage, optical storage, flash memory storage.

Magnetic storage device
This type is the most common storage used and present in our computers and is the technology that hard drives use.

Floppy Disk Drive, called FDD or FD is a device that can store data on floppy diskettes. First disk drive was made in 1971. First diskettes was capable to store between 360 KB and 1.2 MB and later between 360 KB and 1.44 MB. The amount of data was dependent on whether the disk was single or double sided and whether the disk was regular or high density. Because this type of storage device can store a little amount of data, computers no longer come with it. This technology was replaced by CD-R, DVD-R and Flash Drives.
storage devices – Floppy Disk
Floppy diskette

Hard Disk Drive, also know as HDD, is primary storage device of a PC. A big part and important files of your software used by you are stored on hard disk. Operating system is on hard disk, almost all programs is on hard disk and probably the last document which you created it, is stored too on hard disk. A computer without a hard disk don’t represent a big utility, considering that almost all software is made to function in presence of a hard disk.
storage devices – HDD
Hard Disk Drive

HDD Anatomy:
Platters covered with a magnetize material. Those platters are rotated by a spindle which can make posible thousands of rotation per minute (RPM). In present, a normal hard disk begins its RPM from 7.200 to 15.000.
Acuator arm which contains the head. Just in case a hard disk has more than one platter, which of them have its head for read/write. The activity of read/write produce a little specific noise because of magnetic phenomena used to store or access the data. During time, hard disks become more and more silent and noise made by them being almost not interceptable.
Acuator which can move the head everywhere on the surface of the platter.
Controller which, how it named, controls the processes of read and write and transfers from/to computer. Part of the electronic circuit is of course the ultra fast cache memory.
Case in which the mechanic and some of electronic components are encapsulated. Its role is to protect the platters of contact with anything and to disipate the heat produced by the platters when are rotating.
storage devices – HDD Anatomy
HDD Components

Types of HDD: 3.5, 2.5 or 1.8 inch. Looking at the diameter of the platters, most common hard disks are 3.5 and 2.5 inch. 3.5 inch hard disks are most used for PC and are mounted in a computer case. A PC is not limited at only one hard disk, being able to keep mounted four of them and the number could be increased with special extension interface. 2.5 hard disks are usually mounted on portable technology and are used by another electronic equipment such DVD Recorder, gaming consoles, video camera, MP3 players, etc. This type of hard disk requires a little 5V causing an economic power consumption looking at 3.5 inch model which require 12V to function. If 2.5 inch model requires a low voltages and power consumption is lower as well, the 3.5 inch model provides a higher transfer rate. 1.8 inch hard disks are commonly used by the popular iPod produced by the Apple company. This type of hard disk is important to be used because in portable technology every millimeter is crucial for the final form factor.
storage devices – Types of HDD
Types of HDD

Internal hard disk is meant to function in interior of the computer case. We can take the internal hard disk out from the case and put it into another case but is not smart and good solution because, you know, those devices are sensible at shocks. To transfer a big amount of data and for portability exist external hard disks. It is encapsulated in a tiny metal box a normal hard disk of 3.5 or 2.5 inch. External 3.5 inch HDD require a separate power source while 2.5 inch one is enough the 5 V and 0.5 A delivered by the USB interface. The majority of the external HDD are connected through USB interface, but there are more advanced solution like FireWire, eSATA (external SATA) or the ethernet interface to connect it to a network (LAN).
storage devices – HDD Extern
HDD Extern

Optical storage device
Lasers and lights are used to read and write data from another common storage device. Referred as optical media, optical storage, Optical disk drive (ODD). Blu-ray, CDs and DVDs are the most common types of optical media. PC can read and write CDs and DVDs through a CD Writer or DVD Writer drive, and of course the Blu-ray is read with Blu-ray drive.

As a capacity of storing data, CDs can store up to 700 megabytes and DVDs up to 8.4 gigabytes. Blu-ray disks rule all optical disks on capacity and can store upto 50 GB of data. Of course this an advantage over the magnetic media such floppy diskette which can store only 1.44 MB. The durability is another advantage over the floppy diskette and it can last up to 7 times longer.

storage devices – Optical media
Optical Media

Flash memory devices
Looking at the magnetic devices, developers saw there are some disadvantages like sensibility at shocks, and low speeds of data transfer rate. So they starting to make and innovate new solutions based on flash memory. We will discus about SSD, memory stick and memory card.

SSD (Solid State Drive) when was for the first time revealed on the market, this type of storage solution has the price so high and not so many users can afford it. For a while, you can see the price of a 120 GB SSD lower than 50$. At this price, represent a very good investment and the effect of the improvements in users’s experience will be like no other. Maybe a new graphics card will perform better in your games. A new processor will make your computer to execute faster all tasks and more RAM to run more applications, but with a SSD you can do all tasks better and don’t need to wait minutes, everyday 😀
storage devices – ssd
SSDs

In the present, a SSD can reach read speeds that are close to 10 GB/s. SSDs are capable for such performance because them function on completely different technology to HDD. Most important difference is the way how the data is stored. Instead of magnetize platters from HDD, which its rotation speed affect accessing speed and which require a head for reading and manage the data, a SSD don’t have mechanical components. The data is stored in non-volatile memory module, which may be of several types, depending on the technology used and the company that produces the memory. Data stored on SSD can be accessed very fast, no matter where them are.
storage devices – SSD PCB
SSD PCB

For any portion of memory to be written, even it is a single bit, firstly an entire block of memory need to be cleared through an erasing process. But it is not perfect, the resistance factor of the memory decreasing until it no more can be used. If the memory is only read, there are no problems, reading will not affect in no way a SSD, being the part where this devices excel. So you often will see SSDs with reading speeds faster than 500 MB/s, but with the writing speeds of only 250 MB/s. Process of writing is much slower, and how is done, it depends on type of memory used and also controller.
storage devices – SSD Components
SSD Components

The controller of a SSD dictates most of the performance and durability on the device. Maybe you heard names like Sandforce or Phison. Those names refer at type of controller used, component that manage all data. A controller determines how the information is written on SSD, often in a way to use every cell of memory equally and do not feel the presence of usability too soon. Controller also manage data compression and addressing errors. If you think that a SSD can be a PC, then controller might be the CPU of SSD. Like a PC, a SSD have some RAM, correctly said, have cache. It comes in the form of a quantity of volatile memory, often of DDR3 type, used to store information now in use or which are ready to be compressed. How is used this cache depends on the controller, some of them like Sandforce, don’t require the volatile memory.
The last thing to consider to a SSDs is how are connected to PC. As a standard, all SSDs were SATA type, its speed being limited to 6 GB/s. But lately appear SSDs able to connect to PCI-Express directly mounted on expansion card or through M.2 slot.
Memory stick was first introduced by Sony in 1998 and was design for the Sony digital cameras and other Sony products. Sony develop some different types of memory stick including: memory stick, memory stick duo, memory stick micro, memory stick PRO-HG, memory stick XC. The capacity of a memory stick can vary from 4 MB to 256 GB and a theoretically maximum capacity of 2 TB. Nowadays almost all people know about memory stick looking like from the right image. That’s an USB flash based memory stick which for sure everyone see one of them.
storage devices – Memory Stick
Memory Stick

Memory card named also flash memory card is a type of storage that is often used to store photos, videos or other data. Memory card is commonly used by the following devices: digital cameras, handheld computers, MP3 players, game consoles, PDAs, smartphones and also printers. The pictures from the right is a MicroSD memory card being one of the many type of it. There are plenty types of memory card varying in size, compatibility and capacity: CompactFlash (FC), MircoSD, MMC, SD Card, SDHC Card, SmartMedia Card, Sony Memory Stick and xD-Picture Card.
storage devices – Memory Card
Memory Card – MicroSD

Hybrid storage devices
This storage was introduced to combine the capacity of the HDD and the performance of the SSD. Let’s discuss about this type of storage device.

SSHD (Solid State Hybrid Drive) is a combination between a HDD, with platters, and a SSD. If you are not hearing untill now, on the market it is present and this type of storage device. Samsung and Seagate introduced in 2007 the first hybrid drives with the Samsung SpinPoint MH80 and Seagate Momentus PSD. Each model was 2.5 inch drives, featuring 128 MB or 256 MB NAND flash memory.
So what is a SSHD? Is normal hard drive with a cache memory (NAND), usually of 8 GB. All information that you are using are saved in this memory, and if you access them repeatedly, information is load much faster. Therefore, frequently used files will remain saved in cache to open them much faster, using an algorithm very well defined, and those files rarely used, will remain stored in HDD, as an archive.

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